Muscles and Neurovasculature of the Cubital Fossa
An illustrative cut-away of the cubital fossa area intended for anatomical reference purposes

Type

Anatomical Illustration

Tools

Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Illustrator

Client

Prof. Michael Corrin (MSC2001Y)

Target Audience

Anatomy students and undergraduate students learning anatomy

Content Advisor

Prof. Carol Heck (University of Toronto)

Date completed

December 20, 2021

Goals

To Illustrate a cutaway section of the body, revealing structures that are usually hidden.

Muscles and Neurovasculature of the Cubital Fossa
An illustrative cut-away of the cubital fossa area intended for anatomical reference purposes

Type

Anatomical Illustration

Tools

Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Illustrator

Client

Prof. Michael Corrin (MSC2001Y)

Target Audience

Anatomy students and undergraduate students learning anatomy

Content Advisor

Prof. Carol Heck (University of Toronto)

Date completed

December 20, 2021

Goals

To Illustrate a cutaway section of the body, revealing structures that are usually hidden.

Process

For this project, I wanted to create an illustration that undergraduate and graduate students can use as a visual resource to study the cubital fossa. The muscles and neurovasculature of this area in the body run intimately together making it hard to keep track of their relations relative to one another. 

I started off with a simple paper sketch of my idea using Grant’s Atlas as my main anatomical reference.

Maquette Building

After gathering the necessary anatomical resources, I created a maquette to get a better sense of lighting and structure. To do this, I first downloaded 3D assets of arm bones that were derived from MRI scans (lifesciencedb.jp). Using Zbrush, I manually arranged these bones in a flexed position and utilized bony landmarks as I sculpted the arm and muscles. 

Moving the .obj file into Cinema 4d I was able to set up a scene using top-left lighting to create a render of my maquette.

Sketches

Tracing over my maquette render, I created some iterations of my illustration in Photoshop using cell shading to get a sense of the colors I’ll be employing in my final rendition. In this step, through the help of my content advisor, MRI cross-sections, and anatomy atlases the accuracy of the anatomical features in this illustration was verified.

Upon feedback, I eventually added the hand and body, using myself as photograph reference, to increase the context in the illustration. 

Final Render

After I was happy with my sketch, I began to start my greyscale render in which I focused on the lighting, structure, and texture of the materials. Using a series of clipping masks and subtle shading, I was able to achieve the semi-realistic style I wanted.

In the colorization step, I utilized a combination of color, multiply and overlay layers to color my greyscale layer. Using different tonal hues, I was able to push and pull certain areas of the illustration to generate enough contrast to visually separate out different materials.  

References

  1. Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery (ACS) (2015) Open thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair. [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ngr80zG8-WI (Accessed December 20, 2021)
  2. Agur, A. M. R., Dalley, A. F. (2017). Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy (14th ed, pp. 70, 76, 111, 129-130, 142-144). Wolters Kluwer.
  3. Bo, W. J. (2007). Basic atlas of sectional anatomy: With correlated imaging. (2nd ed, pp. 340, 342, 347) Saunders Elsevier. 
  4. Cleveland Clinic. (2021). Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: Internal Mammary Arteries (Graphic) [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PO6ioZXVBvs (Accessed December 20, 2021)
  5. Majid, A., Majid D. (2016). M&M Essential Anatomy (3rd ed, pp. 55, 174). Pearson Learning Solutions. 
  6. Micheau, A., Hoa, D. (2021). MRI of the upper extremity anatomy – Atlas of the human body using cross-sectional imaging. https://www.imaios.com/en/e-Anatomy/Upper-Limb/Upper-extremity-MRI (Accessed December 20, 2021)
  7. Netter, F. H. (2019). Netter Atlas of Human Anatomy (7th ed, pp. 463-467, 421, 423, 426-430, 436, BP100-101). Saunders Elsevier. 
  8. Standring, S., Gray, H. (2008). Gray’s Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice (40th ed, pp. 838-840, 845) Saunders Elsevier. 
  9. Stryker. (2015). Stryker Trauma & Extremities | VariAx Elbow Locking Plate System | 180 Degree Plating [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sUIVjcTgW90&t=430s (Accessed December 20, 2021)
  10. Tatco, V. Normal MRI of the arm. https://radiopaedia.org/cases/normal-mri-of-the-arm (Accessed December 20, 2021)